Category: Animal Welfare Science

How puppies become anxious ‘home alone’ dogs

With the recent Channel 4 documentary ‘Dogs: Their Secret Lives1 in the UK raising awareness of the welfare issues of ‘home alone’ dogs and separation related behaviours (SRBs), I am sticking with this theme for my next blog. Identifying and appropriately treating affected dogs with validated and tailored treatment programmes is important2,3,4; but considering the extent of this worrying welfare problem, prevention is paramount.

Giving puppies the right experiences of being left alone from the start goes a long way to preventing separation related behaviours (SRBs) or separation anxiety later in life. As is so often the case when considering the prevention of problem behaviours, putting in time and thought during the early life of a puppy is beneficial in the long-term.

Research suggests that puppies show behavioural responses to separation from 3 weeks of age5, and increased cortisol (a physiological indicator of the stress response) on separation from 5 weeks6. The process of getting puppies used to short periods of separation should therefore start with the breeder. Initially puppies need to be picked up and just momentarily held away from littermates. The gradual process of habituation to being alone should then continue when puppies go to their new homes, and there are various resources describing how to go about this1,7,8,10. The aim of this blog is to illustrate why following these guidelines is so important for the long-term welfare of dogs.

Taking a “dog’s point of view” of being left alone is perhaps the best way to consider this. I would like to use the example of ‘Frodo’ a Jack Russell terrier, and I invite you to imagine him arriving for the first time in his new home at 10 weeks of age. He has just been picked up from the breeder’s house and brought home to his new family. He has settled in pretty well considering the complete change in his world, and has started to learn about his new social group – the members of the Mitchell family. He has been with the family all afternoon and enjoyed all the attention, but now it is bedtime, and Frodo is settled into an indoor kennel in the kitchen and left alone. This is the first time he has ever been all alone, having always been with littermates or mum before. He is worried, and reacts by scrabbling about at the door of his kennel and crying loudly. Mr Mitchell hears his cries and comes back to settle him down again. Frodo settles down when he has company, but when Mr Mitchell heads off to bed again, he starts to cry straight away, bringing his owner back to the kitchen.

In this first scenario, Frodo finds being alone new and scary, but also learns that crying is an effective ‘strategy’ to resolve his anxiety – because it is successful at regaining social contact. He has not learnt to be OK on his own, but has learnt an active response to address this incredibly scary problem that works for him. As time moves on in this example, Mr Mitchell may get fed up of coming down and reassuring his new puppy, and stay in bed with ear plugs in. Because crying has always worked before, Frodo may carry on crying for a long time, and maybe also start howling. He will become more and more anxious, waiting for someone to come. Eventually Mrs Mitchell might wake up and come to settle him down. So Frodo learns that even if he has to cry for a long time, it will eventually work – in other words it is worth persisting with crying even if it doesn’t work immediately. Frodo is already well on the way to developing an active SRB. He may go through life always being anxious about being left alone, persistently crying and howling in an attempt to resolve his distress – because he has learnt that, at least sometimes, this will work to get back with his social group.

Imagine now, in a parallel universe (scenario 2), that he managed to get the door of his indoor kennel to ping open by scrabbling at it on that first occasion he was left alone, enabling him to run into another room to find his human family. Because scrabbling worked to resolve his situation, he would be more likely to scrabble at the door the next time he was put in the kennel – and if the door fixing was still dodgy, he might get out again. In this scenario, Frodo might develop an active destructive response to being left alone which persists throughout life.

Because these behaviours – howling and destruction – are a ‘problem’ for owners, advice in the past has commonly been to make sure that the first signs of such responses are not reinforced. Prevention advice used to focus on not ‘giving in’ to crying or scrabbling, but leaving the puppy alone to make sure that these responses were not rewarded by owner return. This approach meant that these behaviours would not become ‘successful’ and less likely to become SRBs. That is true, but there is a considerable problem with this approach. Behavioural signs may not be so obvious, but nothing has been done to stop the puppy being anxious about being left alone.

Puppy in crate looking anxious

Now imagine Frodo in his kennel in yet another parallel universe (scenario 3). This time his owners have heard that they should completely ignore any responses to being left alone.  The family go off and leave Frodo in his kennel, they all put in earplugs and go off to sleep. He is terrified, trapped in his kennel. He cries and cries, and scrabbles and scrabbles, but nobody comes. He tries again, crying and scrabbling. He gets so anxious that he toilets in his bed. He gets exhausted after a time, and gives up trying to get out or to get attention – finding that whatever he does there is no way of controlling his situation or resolving the cause of his anxiety. He goes quiet, terrified and shivering in his wet bed and waits…and waits… (better stop there, before I make myself cry!)

In this scenario, no problem behaviours are reinforced, but Frodo is still very anxious about being left – possibly more so as he has no active strategy that he can try to have some control over his environment. Although Frodo may not have an obvious ‘problem’ SRB as he grows up, he is very likely to still be anxious when left alone – and may remain so for life. He is likely to end up as one of the dogs which show more subtle signs of anxiety and perhaps physiological signs of stress (termed the ‘inactive anxious’ group in our research9) when he is left alone – worried about being alone but having no active coping response to help him deal with this.

Perhaps we should finish by leaving poor Frodo in a more positive universe. This time (scenario 4), his owners had better advice, and have trained him gradually to be comfortable in his indoor kennel from the time that he first arrived7. They made sure they were at home for the first couple of weeks after Frodo arrived, and used this time to teach him very gradually to tolerate being on his own in the indoor kennel, before they went back to work. On the first night they put the kennel close to them in their bedroom, and over the following days they gradually moved the kennel slightly further away, in small increments, as long as Frodo remained settled. By the fifth night he was calmly sleeping in the hallway. Things are heading in the right direction for a separation related behaviour free future!


  2. Blackwell, E. J., Casey, R.A. and Bradshaw, J.W.S. (2006) Controlled trial of behavioural therapy for separation-related disorders in dogs. Veterinary Record 158 (16): 551-554
  3. Butler, R., Sargisson, R.J. and Elliffe, D. (2011). The efficacy of systematic desensitisation for treating the separation-related problem behaviour of domestic dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 129, 136-145
  5. Scott, J.P. (1967). The evolution of social behaviour in dogs. American Zoologist, 7, 373-381.
  6. Nagaswa, M., Shibata, Y., Yonezawa, A., Morita, T., Kanai, M., Mogi, K. and Kikusui, T. (2013) The behavioural and endocrinological development of stress responses in dogs. Developmental Psychobiology, 9999, 1-8.
  9. BehaviourVet WordPress blog: Left ‘home alone’: a welfare issue for dogs

You can’t see me…the value of hiding enrichment for cats

As a welfare scientist, there is nothing nicer than seeing the results of your research being used in the ‘real world’. Quite a while ago, I did some research with students Kristen Kry and Kim Hawkins investigating the value of giving cats somewhere to hide when they first came into a re-homing centre. The rationale behind this research was quite simple: when cats are worried, their preferred ‘strategy’ is to get away. And if you’re a cat, getting away means running away, climbing upwards or hiding inside something.

Picture of one cat up a tree and one cat hiding

Cats usually respond to threat by moving away, climbing or hiding (Picture by Janet Revell)

In a shelter environment it is clearly impractical to allow a cat to either run away or climb high. But it is feasible to give them somewhere to hide. Some shelters were already giving particularly nervous cats a hiding place, but it was not a universally accepted practice. In fact, there was some controversy as to whether enabling hiding in cats might have a negative impact. For example, it was possible that cats which were hiding would not be as easily seen by potential adopters – and as a result would remain in the centres longer before being re-homed.

We were therefore interested in seeing exactly what effect giving ‘hiding enrichment’ would have for all cats coming into a re-homing centre, and to measure whether cats allowed to hide took longer to re-home. Our studies used both plain cardboard boxes with one side cut away, and the very nicely designed ‘Hide and Perch’ box from the British Columbia Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (BCSPCA) in Canada – which has since been developed further into the ‘Hide Perch & GoTM box’1 to incorporate a cat carrier for use when cats are re-homed. Which is a neat idea, as the cat goes home in something that smells familiar.

Picture of a cat sitting on top of a hide and perch box

Cat in shelter using the ‘hide and perch box’

Our studies compared cats provided with boxes and those without, over the first 14 days after they came into the centres. Cats vary a lot in how they first react on arrival, but we know from previous studies that on average most stress measures decline over the first week or two as they adapt to the new environment (something I’ll come back to in a later blog). So, we were interested in how the cats with and without boxes differed in this rate of decline – in other words whether the boxes helped them adapt to their new surroundings.

The studies used a behavioural measure of stress which has been used quite widely in cat welfare research. Originally developed by Sandra McCune2, it is a scale derived by combining together different individual behaviours into an overall numerical ‘cat stress score’ (CSS). The measure has been developed a few times over the years – for example by the Swiss researchers Kessler and Turner3, and then further in our group at the start of Kim’s PhD4 – if you’re interested there is a full description of the revised scale in a recent textbook5.

Our studies revealed that providing cats with boxes did lead to a significant decline in CSS over the first 14 days. Cats with boxes were also more likely to approach a person standing outside the pen door, and importantly there was no difference in how long the two groups were in the centre before being re-homed6. We also found that if boxes were removed from cats once they had them, they showed significantly more behavioural signs of stress, further confirming the importance of having a hiding place for cat welfare4.

With all these interesting findings about the importance of hiding enrichment for shelter cats, I was delighted to hear that the fantastic veterinary team at Cats Protection were developing a hiding enrichment system for use within the charity7 based on our research (the Feline Fort®).

Picture of a cat using the hiding part of the feline fort

A cat using the Feline Fort® at Bridgend Cats Protection centre (picture from Cats Protection)

Picture showing the complete Feline Fort® with step

The complete Feline Fort® with step and hiding area (Picture from Cats Protection)

The Feline Fort® has multiple elements – steps as well as hiding boxes, and is designed to enable cats to both climb and hide. This will have such an important impact on cats in re-homing centres. But also anywhere that cats feel stressed – such as veterinary practices8. As the picture sent to me by CP’s behaviour manager Nicky Trevorrow below shows – it’s not just useful for cats!

Picture of a rabbit in the Feline Fort®

The Feline Fort® can be useful for other species too (picture by Nicky Trevorrow)


  2. McCune, S. (1992). Temperament and welfare of caged cats. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, UK.
  3. Kessler, M.R. and Turner, C.D. (1988). Effects of density and cage size on stress in domestic cats (Felis Silvestris Catus) housed in animal shelters and boarding catteries. Animal Welfare, 8, 259-267.
  4. Hawkins, K.R. (2005). Stress, enrichment and the welfare of domestic cats in rescue shelters. PhD Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.
  5. Bradshaw, J.W.S., Casey, R.A. and Brown, S.L. (2012). The Behaviour of the Domestic Cat. 2nd edition. CABI, Wallingford, Oxfordshire. Pp. 179-181.
  6. Kry, K. and Casey, R.A. (2007). The effect of hiding enrichment on stress levels and behaviour of domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) in a shelter setting and the implications for adoption potential. Animal Welfare, 16, 375-383.